This article about renewable energy sources. You can use this article for your english essay. So that, i write advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy in essay format.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY…………3
2.1 An infinite energy source……………………3
2.1.1 Wind energy ……………………3
2.1.2 Solar energy………………………4
2.2 Environmentally friendly…………………4
2.2.1 CO2 emission……………………5
2.2.2 Waste free……………………….5
3. DISADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY…….5
3.1 Low-efficiency levels…………………………5
3.1.1 Less energy…………………………6
3.1.2 Energy generation………………6
3.2.1 Unit costs……………………………7
3.2.2 Return of investment (long-term)…8
This report is an attempt to examine renewable energy is a new trend whosse advantages overweigh its disadvantages . In the first part of the report , advantages of renewable energy like its an infinite energy source ,so that wind energy and solar energy . In the second part ,other advantages When using renewable energy sources, harmful gases and harmful waste do not come out to the nature. That is why renewable energy is environment friendly. On the other hand disadvantages of renewable energy. Less energy production, costly investment unit cost and long depreciation times are among the disadvantages of renewable energy. As a result, the advantages of renewable energy have bigger impacts than its disadvantages, so the advantages of renewable energy overweigh its disadvantages. As a result, the advantages of renewable energy have bigger impacts than its disadvantages, so the advantages of renewable energy overweigh its disadvantages.
It is possible to solve the incremental energy requirement of the World by using the renewable and harmless energy sources. The energy requirement is increasing due to the technological development in the World. Today unfortunately the fossil fuel is used widely. That’s why the weather, water and environmental contamination is increasing quickly. However, the renewable energy has many advantages to fossil fuel. Because of unlimited and harmless especially renewable energy should become widespread.
Solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric and geothermal energy are the examples of renewable energy sources. Many of these sources have been already in use before petroleum found. But these renewable sources are used to meet the energy requirements. And day by day, the technology of renewable energy is developing and its use becomes more common. At the end of year 2015, 23.7% of total energy in the world is produced by using renewable energy sources. Moreover, according to the statement of United States Department of Energy, the electricity generation of year 2040 will be 10000 Twh which is 5288 Twh in year 2014. The investment on the renewable energy field is growing each year. In fact some worldwide popular oil companies (i.e. Total) invest billions of dollars to the renewable energy. Because the world yet recognizes that the renewable energy is clean, unlimited and harmless way of energy generation.
This report emphasizes rather the advantages of renewable energy sources.Also,o there might be some disadvantages relatively lessharmfull then the disadvantages of fossil fuel.
To support of the contents of this report, some books, articles and internet resources have been used.
This report is restricted with the comparison of advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy in order to prove that the advantages of renewable energy overweigh its disadvantages.
Firstly, this report shows advantages of renewable energy in first part. Secondly, explained disadvantages of renewable energy. Finally, conclusion of the report verifies why the advantages of renewable energy overweigh the disadvantages.
2. ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
The most widely used energy sources in the world today are fosil fuels. But in recent years the use of renewable energy has begun to increase significantly. Even some countries have shown that renewable energy alone can meet the energy needs of an individual country. For example, portuguese used only renewable energy for four full days in 2016 (NTV, 2016). In doing this, Portugal has attracted other fossil fuel-fired power plants and used only renewable energy. Later, Kosta Rika received about 99% of the energy needed for 285 days with renewable energy sources (EnerjiBeş, 2016). And many other countries continue to do so. Turkey is the work of the world’s largest solar power plant project began in 2017. In this section, advantages of renewable energy, especially, an infinite energy source and environmentally friendly will be presented.
2.1 An infinite energy source
Renewable energy sources are mainly solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy and hydroelectric energy. All five energy species can be obtained directly from natural sources. Therefore, these energy sources are endless and inexhaustible energy sources. Especially solar energy and wind energy are among the most endless sources of energy.
2.1.1 Wind energy
Wind is a natural phenomenon caused by the exchange of hot air and cold air. The wind also raises the physical differences of the earth and the heat of the sun with the heat. So wind energy is an endless source of energy. Therefore, it is very common to obtain electricity with wind energy. They do not need any source of energy to produce energy like fossil fuels. Wind energy takes its power from nature. There is wind in the world and there is no source of energy to generate electricity with wind energy.
So the use of wind energy in the world in recent years has become very popular. Many countries are investing heavily in the use of wind energy. In 2015, Denmark achieved about 40% of its energy needs with wind energy. By the end of 2014, about 4% of the world’s energy produced was produced by wind energy (Seisa, 2017). In addition, wind energy can generate electricity both at night and day. To conclude, wind energy is very advantageous because it is an infinite energy source.
2.1.2 Solar energy
Solar energy is an energy source that has existed since the world began. Solar energy is an endless and inexhaustible source of energy. Humans have been using solar energy since ancient times. At first, people used solar energy only to warm up and dry their food. Today, however, solar energy is used to generate electricity. With solar energy, continuous electricity is possible in both summer and winter. Photovoltaic modules can convert solar energy into electricity. Today, solar energy is used extensively by all the countries of the world. The Turkish ministry of energy will be able to benefit from the infinite supply of solar energy by starting construction of the world’s largest solar power plant in Karaman (Sabah, 2016). As a result, the sun is very advantageous because it is a free and endless source of energy.
2.2 Environmentally friendly
Fossil-fueled power plants, such as thermal power plants, natural gas power plants and petroleum power plants, use fossil fuels that can be consumed to generate electricity. Fossil fuels need to burn to produce energy. When fossil fuels are burned, some harmful gases and wastes are released. These wastes cause environmental pollution. But this is not the case in renewable energy sources. In coclusion, when using renewable energy sources, harmful gases (such as CO2) and harmful waste do not come out to the nature. That is why renewable energy is environment friendly.
2.2.1 CO2 emission
According to the data of TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute); 82.2% of the total CO2 emissions in 2013 is due to energy production (TUIK , 2015). According to the Ministry of Energy of Turkey; In 2013, more than 71% of the energy production in turkey was produced with fossil fuels (TC Ministry of Energy, 2013, p.25). As a result, CO2 emissions are very high in energy production. However, solar energy, renewable energy sources, wind energy, biomass energy, hydropower and geothermal energy and electricity generation are low levels of CO2 emissions that can be neglected. Therefore, one of the greatest advantages of renewable energy is that it is an environmentally friendly energy source.
2.2.2 Waste free
When all the fossil fuels are burned, they leave harmful wastes. But that is not the case for renewable energy. Because, in order to use wind energy, mechanical energy is used. There is no waste due to the use of motion energy. The same is true of solar energy. When using solar energy, no fuel is used, and because the fuel is not used, it does not generate waste. Only packaging wastes may arise during the installation phase of renewable energy plants. Packaging waste is collected by many municipalities with their own teams. That is why renewable energy is one of the environmental benefits of not generating waste.
3. DISADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy has many advantages. But there are also disadvantages of renewable energy. But these disadvantages are not as much as the disadvantages of fossil fuels. Less energy production, costly investment unit cost and long depreciation times are among the disadvantages of renewable energy.
3.1 Low-efficiency levels
Today, renewable energy technology is just emerging. Unfortunately, the renewable energy technologies used low. Fossil fuels are still more energy-intensive than renewable energy. The disadvantages of renewable energy can be said to be less energy production and less consumption.
3.1.1 Less energy
Renewable energy sources produce less energy. Because, exactly solar energy produce less energy in large area. Because, about 1 kW photovoltaic module has 6,4 square meters in an area. So that solar energy is not suitable for small countries because it takes up a large area. Moreover, photovoltaic modules do not fit into the roof of large buildings. To sum up, renewable energy sources produce less energy in a big area so that its an important disadvantages of renewable energy sources.
3.1.2 Energy generation
With fossil fuels, there is no need for a lot of outdoor conditions for energy production. But for renewable energy production, the outdoor environment must be at the optimum level. For example, to generate electricity with wind turbines, optimum wind conditions must be established. The speed of the wind should not be too fast, not too fast. Otherwise, it can not be used in the wind. The most beneficial areas of wind energy in denmark, germany and our country are Çanakkale, Balikesir, Manisa and İzmir. Because other cities do not have the desired wind conditions. But above mentioned cities also have the desired wind speed and level. The same applies to solar energy. According to the Turkish Ministry of Energy’s solar energy potential jump (GEPA); It seems that the most suitable cities for producing electricity with solar energy are Antalya, Adana, Mersin, Konya, Muğla and Kayseri. We see that these cities have an annual production capacity of 1600 to 2000 kWh per square meter. But when we look at our Black Sea illusions like Kastamonu and Sinop, we see that the average energy production potential per square meter is 1300 kWh.
Also germany has solar energy potential per square meter is 950 kWh. Another source of energy among renewable energy sources is wave energy. It is also very difficult to generate electricity with wave energy. Because all the oceans and seas in the world are different in wave length. Therefore, the wave energy potential also varies. If it is difficult to generate electricity from the wave energy, it is necessary to design a different wave energy generation plant for each different wavelength. In other words, new facilities must be constantly developed to generate electricity from the wave energy. To sum up, one of the biggest disadvantages of renewable energy is that energy production facilities are overly dependent on external environment and external conditions.
Other disadvantages of renewable energy sources are high investment costs and long depreciation periods. Even some renewable energy sources (such as hydroelectricity) are not foreseen for depreciation periods. Therefore the greatest part the drawbacks of the renewable energy unit and return of investment costs (long depreciation time) is.
3.2.1 Unit costs
One of the disadvantages of renewable energy is that the unit cost is high. The high cost per unit is due to the fact that renewable energy technology has not yet developed. Solar panel costs account for about 85% of the investment cost of solar power plants. The solar panel unit cost also varies according to solar cell production technology. Some materials are used in solar cell construction. These are mainly crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenic, cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide (Öztürk, 2013, p.112). The cost of solar panels also varies according to the availability of these materials in the nature and suitability for use in the laboratory environment. Therefore, disadvantages of renewable energy include high unit cost.
3.2.2 Return of investment (long-term)
It is calculated how many years later the investment to be made to the power plant will be depreciated before the power plants are built. Many fossil fueled power plants have very low amortization periods. But renewable energy sources and energy producing plants have very high amortization periods. Because unit costs are high and energy production efficiency is low. Normally the average depreciation of a solar power plant investment is 7 years. Compared with fossil fuels, it can be seen that the 7 year depreciation period is quite long. We can say the same thing in hydroelectric power stations. But hydroelectric power plants are a little different and risky. Because the period of depreciation of hydroelectric power plants is calculated, the flow of running water is taken into consideration. However, it is not as if the depreciation period of a hydro power plant has been calculated. Because, in the region where the hydroelectric power plant is installed, it may be the case that the investment depreciation time is 20 years in case of dry run of about 1 year. As a result, one of the major disadvantages of renewable energy sources is the length of depreciation and the unpredictable depreciation period for some renewable energy plants.
The findings of the report show that are several disadvantages of renewable energy that cannot be ignored, like less energy, energy generation, unit costs and return of investment (long – term). On the other hand, there are very important advantages of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources are very important for humanity and nature because they are depleted, endless and clean energy sources. Countries can meet their energy needs themselves by using renewable energy sources because renewable energy sources are derived entirely from nature. So that renewable energy sources contributes to the countries’s economy. Moreover, a country can not take the sun and wind of another country. However, this is not the case in fossil fuels like oil. Also harmful gases do not occur due to the use of renewable energy sources. So that renewable energy sources have not harm to nature. As a result, the advantages of renewable energy have bigger impacts than its disadvantages, so the advantages of renewable energy overweigh its disadvantages.
When all these findings are taken into consideration, it could be recommended that people could be informed about the consequences of renewable energy and goverment policies about using renewable energy could be altered.
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- Energy Five. (2016). Kosta Rika Using Renewable Energy Record Break: Retrieved from http://www.enerjibes.com/kosta-rika-enableene-enerji-kullanma-rekoru-kirdi/
- Sabah. (2016). The largest GES of the world is being established in Konya: Retrieved from http://www.sabah.com.tr/ekonomi/2016/10/21/konyaya-dunyanin-en-buyuk-gesi-kuruluyor
- TÜİK. (2015). Greenhouse gas emission inventory, 2013: Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18744
- TC Ministry of Energy. (2013). Turkey 2013 Annual Energy Statistics Report: Retrieved from http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT/1/Documents/E%C4%B0GM%20Periyodik%20Rapor/2013_Yili_Enerji_Istatistikleri_Raporu.pdf
- GEPA. Solar Energy Potential Atlas: Retrieved from http://www.eie.gov.tr/MyCalculator/Default.aspx
- Prof.Dr.H. ÖZTÜRK. (2013). Renewable energy sources. Istanbul: Birsen Publishing House.