Before providing the answer to biomass energy question, we need to know the answer to what is biomass question. Information about biomass and biomass energy with all details are as follows:
What is Biomass?
Biomass is the mass that living organisms, belonging to a species or a collection of various species, have at a certain time. The synonym of biomass is livemass. There are two types of biomass. These are herb and animal originated masses.
Biomass is also called the energy-containing form of fossil originated carbon.
Here are the biomass wastes briefly;
- Herbal product wastes in agriculture and forestry,
- Herbal wastes due to product processing,
- Fibrous herbal wastes due to paper production,
- Mushroom wastes, etc.
What is Biomass Energy?
Biomass energy is the energy acquired from the combustion of biomass waste or through the use of different processes on biomass waste. Biomass energy is included in the renewable energy sources. It is also possible to say that biomass energy is among the clean energy sources.
There are 2 types of biomass energy use. These are traditional and modern use.
Traditional biomass energy use consists of woods and animal waste (i.e, turf) to burn. The most important feature of the traditional use is achieving heat by directly burning the biomass waste.
Modern biomass energy use is achieved from energy forest products, energy agriculture products, agricultural industry waste, and urban wastes.
Biomass material is converted to solid, liquid and/or gaseous fuels by being processed with various techniques. There are many different types of biomass fuel. This is why biomass energy is promoted as the clean, sustainable and renewable energy source of the future.
It is possible to produce heat energy or electric energy with biomass. This is why biofuel is produced from biomass. Some of the biofuels are also used by being mixed with fossil fuels. The well-known example of this is the biodiesel.
Why Should We Use Biofuel?
There are many reasons for us to use biofuel. Some of the brief reasons are;
- To reduce the environmental damage caused by fossil fuels,
- To reduce the exhaust emissions that cause damage to human health and environment,
- To reduce the foreign dependency on energy,
- Biofuels should be used for the economic and technological development of rural areas.
How Many Biofuel Types Are There?
There are 3 types of biofuel. These are solid biofuels, gas biofuels, and liquid biofuels.
- Solid Biofuels: There are two types as biocoal and biobriquette (biopellet).
- Gas Biofuels: There are three types as biogas, biosynthesis gas and biohydrogen
- Liquid Biofuels: There are four types as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol (Mtbe) and bio-oil.
Biomass Energy Obtaining Methods
3 main methods are used in order to obtain biomass energy:
- Physical methods,
- Thermal methods,
- Biochemical and microbial methods.
Some biomass energy obtaining methods and their use areas are as follows;
Forest Wastes: Forest wastes are converted to biogas by using “Airfree Corrosion” technique. The biogas obtained from this is used for electricity production.
Agricultural Wastes: Ethanol is obtained from agricultural wastes by using “Pyrolysis” technique. Ethanol is used for heating purposes.
Energy Plants: Energy plants are directly burned and hydrogen is obtained. They are used for water heating purposes.
Animal Wastes: Methane is obtained from animal wastes by using “Fermentation” technique. It is mainly used in automobiles.
Organic Garbage: Methanol is obtained from animal wastes by using “Gasification” technique in the organic garbage. Methanol is used in airplanes.
Algaes: Synthetic oil is obtained by subjecting the living organisms algaes to “Hydrolysis” technique. It is used in rockets.
Energy Forests: Diesel is obtained with “Biofitolysis” technique.